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April 06, 2008

TCP/IP History 1

TPThe architecture of TCP/IP is often called the Internet architecture because TCP/IP and the Internet as so closely interwoven. In the last chapter, you saw how the Internet standards were developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and eventually passed on to the Internet Society.

The Internet was originally proposed by the precursor of DARPA, called the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), as a method of testing the viability of packet-switching networks. (When ARPA's focus became military in nature, the name was changed.) During its tenure with the project, ARPA foresaw a network of leased lines connected by switching nodes. The network was called ARPANET, and the switching nodes were called Internet Message Processors, or IMPs.

The ARPANET was initially to be comprised of four IMPs located at the University of California at Los Angeles, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Stanford Research Institute, and the University of Utah. The original IMPs were to be Honeywell 316 minicomputers.

The contract for the installation of the network was won by Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN), a company that had a strong influence on the development of the network in the following years. The contract was awarded in late 1968, followed by testing and refinement over the next five years.